My parent raised me with severe corporal punishment, therefore I will discipline my child using corporal punishment.
The above phrase is what most African parents use as their justification for the use of corporal punishment on their children, student or ward. Some parents further argue that the use of corporal punishment on them has made them who they are today. I often ask the question “Who are you now? What has corporal punishment made you become? The answer I often get is that- corporal punishment has made me very disciplined and focused in life. Yet, you are not as successful as you’ve always wanted to be in life, you are not a trust worthy person. Wait… do you think the children raised without corporal punishment are ill-mannered? I bet not, because the societies that are against corporal punishment are the world leading countries with less violence. We need to understand that violence and discipline are two different things. When you decide to make it a norm then you have decided to accept violence such as killing, fighting, slaughtering, raping, bullying and all other forms of violence into the society.
I laugh really hard when I meet monster parents and not disciplined parents. How can a mother cut her child’s skin or whip the child until he/she faint🤨. The joy that some parents have when they instill fear or pain on their children is alarming. As a parent there is a certain period when you can no longer instill fear on that child, the reverse becomes the case and then, how will that make you feel?
A child who thinks he/she was raised properly with corporal punishment was not raised but erased, because, that child grew up in fear without been able to make certain decisions or give opinions that affects his/her life. A child is not irrelevant, we need to understand that children are also humans and are kept in the care of an adult to guide them positively not abuse them.
Feel free to share this blog post with friends, family and acquaintances. Also, share your thought or opinion in the comment section below.
I got into Junior Secondary School with so much excitement because I wanted to enjoy teenage age meeting new people outside my neighborhood, interact with children from various social and economic background, live away from home and test the strength of self-dependency at an early age and think to start a business as I come from background with lots of Medium scale entrepreneurs. My expectations on education, communication and learning were high and I could not wait for my first day as a junior secondary student in a boarding school.
I was enrolled in one of the best secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria and the sad reality of school appraisals in Nigeria is limited to their educational strength based on teaching methods and academic performance in comparison with other schools. Such methods are not constructively appraised on the benefit on mental, intellectual and physical wellbeing of the child. My case was no different as I was a exhibit for testing poor disciplinary methods on children. My parents identified the good academic qualities of this school and once all admission requirement were settled, I became a proud student of Queens College in Lagos Nigeria and lived in school (i.e. the boarding house system that put high responsibility on the school management to cater for the day-to-day wellbeing of students).
The proclivities in this system of child discipline in Nigeria increases the chances and sustainability of corporal punishment based on student-to-student and student-to-teacher relationships as a culture of brutality to define a reputation of “seniority” and dominance within the student community is synonymous to an uncivilized people with intentions to maim and demoralize their peers. When a junior student is a victim of corporal punishment from student of teacher for 4-5 years and sees how it gives a pseudo status of respect, they are very likely to be conditioned to apply such means in defining their roles and status in the student community when they become senior students.
I became a boarding student due to the distance of my school from home. It was a long distance to cover even by car and the traffic in Lagos would double, if not triple the time required to arrive early at school each day. Like I mentioned, the boarding system relinquishes certain responsibilities from the parents to the school management on behalf of their children and this was one of many responsibilities the school would take up that would be less burdensome on my parents and I. The idea of independence was critical to my parents and they wanted to build me up from a young age to be self-reliant and depend less on them for small issues I could manage especially interpersonal relationship and making small decision.
This is a good decision every parent will want for their children and safe to say they wanted a child, regardless of her gender that remains undermined both in terms of equity and equality in Nigeria, to be solid in intellectually and courageous. Though the rules and regulations were alien, I had to live within them as I was excited of my new milestone. Some of the rules were very unimaginable and monstrous and looking back at how they were developed, reviewed and agreed in managing child educational and behavioral development, i really wonder what the definition of child safety and child rights is in Nigeria (I will not dwell on that in this post).
FOOD! FOOD!! FOOD!!! was the reason my house mistress slapped me. Funny but that was why I was slapped, and I will go into a bit of details on it. On this particular day, I went to my guardian’s house receive a call from my parent who had not seen me for some time and as their only child, I think their concerns to speak to me over the phone was valid. After the call, in a show of kind gesture, my guardian gave me food to eat and I ate with so much happiness (considering the quantity and quality (nutritional value) of the food compared to the rations we got from the dining hall, every student would eat her food. I might have been wrong or right to have eaten at my guardians’ house but I’m not too sure a student of a boarding school will blame me for wanting good food.
Anyways, we had a dormitory captain who gave report to the house mistress about certain activities. She reported to the house mistress stating I sometimes ate at my guardians’ and not from the dining hall. Looking back, I can only say she was jealous how my guardian treated me especially with good food. One day, while eating at my guardians’, my house mistress showed up to “discipline me”. I was very surprised and knew somebody gave me up (the snitching systems to attract favor). My house mistress asked what I was doing at my guardians’ place and I replied, “I came to eat dinner”. Her response was “you even have the gut to talk”. At that point, I became very scared and started shivering. She asked me the question again and after responding the same way, she slapped me. I burst into tears and tried to inquire the reason she slapped me, her response to my question was several wipes on my back and legs with a cane she was holding.
At that point my guardian rushed outside to manage the situation and stop her from flogging me. This made them get at each other, at least in words and I felt really sad and because I was slapped and flogged for wanting good food and putting my guardian in a bad situation because I had no idea the implication with the school authority. The fact that food, a core need of a child can be responding in a hostile manner makes me think deeply about children that live without food and how they are treated when they reach out to people that can help or how people that help are perceived by the society. The takeaway for me was that a gap within the social welfare programme of the school was identified and as a school responsible for children wellbeing including quality food, addressing the issue was core not how the student responded to her appetite especially when she did not steal or bully another student for their meal.
My house mistress reported the case to the Vice Principal, which attracted a warning letter from the school after inviting my parents to discuss the matter. The decision from the school management supported the use of violence through corporal punishment meted on me. The mental and physical effect left traumatized as I felt most vulnerable when my parents went home. I did not feel safe and that was not a concern of the school. The direct effect this had on me was I couldn’t speak for myself and always resorted to the help if my guardian, eliminating the goal of developing self-confidence and able to make small decisions on my life. I became more dependent and asking myself questions as “Did she really have to hit me?”, “Couldn’t she have just reported me to the management, if she felt I was wrong or tell me why I was expected to eat from the school dining hall?”.
Guess what, I did not stop going to have those delicious meals at my guardians’ despite the violence and I began taken my dormitory captain along after she apologized to me, we became friends afterwards. My enthusiasm against corporal punishment is that it does not solve the root problem of any poor behavior a child display. It only helps the child grow to understand that (s)he can only manage such root problems by herself/himself and those that do not accept her/his methods of managing root problems will react violently not because they are trying to lead acceptable socio-cultural behaviors but because they lack capacity of an effective way to salvage the problem bedeviling the child and this leads me to make my final comment on this post on corporal punishment. To any teachers, house mistresses, house masters, guardians and parents, the violence you preach is not the solution to the problem.
A teacher of a private school in Lagos simply identified as Mr. Emmanuel beat a student (identified as Boluwatife Onalaja) to death for failing to answer a Mathematics question. The incident occurred on the 28th of November 2020 in Isawo area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria.
Although the school management tried to cover up the horrendous incident by driving the deceased’s body home and stating to his parents that he had become unconscious in the classroom, the truth was told by the deceased’s elder brother who was quick to break the news to his parents on getting home at 5pm. The school teacher who perpetrated the incident is said to be at large.
The above incident depicts one of the major weaknesses of corporal punishment which is the issue of lack of proportionality. Put differently, more often than not, the punishment meted out on the students has little or no bearing with the offence committed. Corporal punishment is usually carried out by teachers in the heat of passion and there is every likelihood that they may lose control and lose sight of the main goal which is correction and reformation. To this end, other non-violent means of correction can be adopted, including denial of certain privileges or rewarding good behaviour can be adopted.
This is no longer only a global health crisis, it is also an economic crisis that is having a huge impact on people.
Guy Ryder, Director General, International Labour Organization
The Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) is prevalent in more than 193 countries of the world today prompting the World Health Organization to upgrade the status of Covid-19 from an epidemic to a global pandemic on March 11, 2020.. Nigeria, the most populous black nation became the first African country to record a positive case of the virus from an Italian immigrant on February 25, 2020. The negative impacts of the pandemic are better left to the realm of imagination than the province of reality.
The world is clearly set to experience its worst depression only after The Great Depression of the 1930s. Again, the international labour Organization estimates that over 25 million jobs and 3.4 trillion dollars will be lost in labour income world-wide while 100 million more people may be forced into extreme poverty. This portends graver implications for a nation like Nigeria, which prior to the pandemic, was already the world’s poverty capital with a poverty rate of 33 percent.
The begging question remains, what is the impact of the foregoing on childs right? It does not take rocket science to realize that the childs rights to life, survival and development which are guaranteed by Article 6 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child are significantly under threat. In this connection, Article 6 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child states, State parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life. State parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible, the survival and development of the child. With glaring poverty levels however, it becomes practically impossible to attain adequate nutrition, right to a healthy and safe environment, security and adequate standard of living which are sine qua non to achieving the right to life.
Again other rights like the childs right to play, leisure and freedom of association has been affected as it has become practically impossible to keep in touch with friends and outside spaces for play are practically unavailable. There are however more serious implications than the foregoing. It is noteworthy that child trafficking, sexual exploitation and child labour are evils resulting from poverty, which has been brought about by this pandemic. In fact, the huge poverty occasioned by the pandemic is expected to increase child labour by 0.7 percent globally – an estimate that radically alters the prospects of reducing child labour for the first time in 20 years.
Furthermore, another implication of the poverty occasioned by this pandemic is increase in child marriage; a.phenomenon that refers to giving out children below 18 years of age to adults as spouses. Already, 43 % of girls in Nigeria are married before their 18th year old birthday, crowning Nigeria as the 11th state where child marriage is highly operative. The pandemic may however worsen this statistics because child marriages will be the most viable alternative for families on the fringes of survival. It becomes a typical example of “take my child while you give me food.” This position is corroborated by the United Nations Population Fund which has in fact estimated that an additional 13 million child marriages may take place over the next 10 years.
Lastly, the childs right against violence has been compromised by the pandemic. The huge poverty emanating from the pandemic can serve a triggering factor for frustration of adults and consequently, the infliction of violence on children. Sadly, incidents of violence and child abuse are less likely to be detected because of lockdown measures. The implication is that the infliction of violence will most likely be carried out covertly.
This situation is worsened in view of the fact that child protection agencies have reduced monitoring in order to avoid the spread of the virus and the ability of child protection institutions to respond adequately has been weakened. Already, more than 1 billion children are exposed to violence yearly. With the pandemic however, this figure will be magnified and significantly increased. This is no doubt a threat to the actualization of Article 37 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child which states that: State parties shall ensure that: (a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
In conclusion, in view of the grave havocs that COVID-19 and its concomitant poverty could wreck on child’s rights, it is imperative for governments to respond with positive laws and policies to ameliorate the looming economic dangers. The United States of America provides a ready example in this regard. She enacted her CARES (CoronaVirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security) Act under which 2.3 trillion dollars, amounting to 11 percent of the United States Gross Domestic Product was dedicated to providing one-time tax rebates to individuals, expanding unemployment benefits and providing food safety nets for the most vulnerable citizens as well as loans for small businesses. Also, under her Pay Check Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act, over 483 billion dollars was ear marked to assisting small businesses in the United States of America. Developing countries like Nigeria could follow suit. This will significantly reduce poverty, whose effect is to threaten the rights of children.
Did somebody just ask if domestic violence still exists? Yes, it is trending in our society today and very disheartening that despite several laws, committees, unions and activism against domestic violence, it still occurs.
The intention of this post is to bring to the society more awareness of domestic violence. Therefore, 6 myths about domestic violence have been compiled by me. Domestic violence is not limited to these myths but it is a start.
Women are not animals. Women deserve the best as same as the opposite sex and they must not be treated like trash. In recent times, feminists have campaigned against gender inequality. Also, international organizations such as the United Nations have declared the equality of all human beings. Article 1 of the UDHR, (Universal Declaration of Human Rights), states that “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood”
Regardless of what a woman’s offense might be, no man has the right to take laws into their hands and discipline her except in self defense.
Domestic violence happens around the world in underdeveloped, developing and developed countries. Regardless of people’s age, gender, race or religion, they can still be abusers. There are many rich people that are abusers and also abused. Therefore, we shouldn’t assume domestic violence affects only the poor. The rich woman next to you might be a victim of domestic violence.
Domestic violence shouldn’t be a family secret. It is a criminal act, asides the legal aspect, it can lead to health problems including death of any party. Abuse of any form should not be tolerated. We must learn to seek help when abused as soon as we can. Although, some victims are to afraid to speak up and some cannot even tell they are victims. We as family and friends should try our best to help those we think might be abused.
Some victims are afraid to leave abusive relationships because of the stigma it brings. We should try and understand the reasons why our loved ones are staying and try to help. For example, some victims stay back because of financial issues, we can offer financial assistance if possible. Some victims may also be offering from Stockholm syndrome, while others might not want kids to be in broken homes. There are a number of reasons victims choose to stay in toxic relationship. We have to try and help when we can, to the best of our abilities.
Responding to violence with violence should only be for self-defense. Some persons believe in the law of retaliation which says “an eye for an eye…a tooth for a tooth”. It is also a biblical term that can be found in scripture, Exodus 21: 23-25 states, “But if there is harm, then you shall pay life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.” Leviticus 24: 19-21 affirms to this, “Anyone who injures their neighbor is to be injured in the same manner: fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth. The one who has inflicted the injury must suffer the same injury.”
However, Jesus condemned the use of retaliation and says that if anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn the other cheek for them.
Religion should not be the excuse for domestic violence.
Both men and women can be victims of domestic violence. One study found that 40% of domestic violence victims are men.
In our society today, most men are ashamed to be seen as victims of domestic violence. They have the weight of being a “man” among their peers that they are too ashamed to come out as a victim. I advise men to also seek help when they can.
In summary, domestic abuse still occurs, there is no excuse for it.
Kindly drop down your opinion or advice about domestic violence, we never know who we are saving.
Child sexual abuse happens when a child is been forced, persuaded or tricked to engage in sexual activities. This abuse is mostly done by adults who understand the child has not developed sexually to engage in sexual activities or reached the legal age to engage is sexual activities. In respect to the child reaching the required age, the Nigerian government seems to be contradictory in the legal age for child to engage in sexual activities. The Child Rights Act and the Penal Code identify different age for a person to engage in sexual activities and this undermines the possibilities to identify an age to pursue, in principle, the sexual rights of a child.
Sexual abuse can take different forms as engaging in sexual activities in the presence of a child, penetrating the child’s genital or excretory organs, engaging the child in foreplay, watching porno-graphical contents or any sexual content with or in the present of a child etc. The most reported forms of sexual abuse in Nigeria is sexual penetration either rape or persuasion. Other forms of sexual abuse are not reported because they are believed to be below the radar of child abuse since penetration did not occur. Sexual abuse is a major concern in the world especially in developing countries with weak and poor judicial institution and enforcement standards. According to the UNICEF, 6 out of 10 children in Nigeria are victims of sexual abuse. However, such activities are uncovered when rape cases are been investigated. This impairs the psychological, emotional, health and physical wellbeing child.
One of the duties of the government is to protect its citizens including protecting children against violence/abuse. The Nigerian government has ratified several international laws against sexual abuse. A few of these ratified laws are Convention on the Rights of the Child, Maputo Protocol and Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women etc. These ratified international laws present a platform that reiterates Nigeria’s commitment to improve child’s rights amongst other human rights. However, such commitments are arguably only on white papers as every child is within the poor security management strategies of the Nigerian government and more so, within the family and neighbourhood they are raised.
This provides two framework of understanding who is responsible for providing safety for children against child sexual in Nigeria. The first framework for understanding who owns responsibility against sexual abuse in Nigeria looks at child security from the lens of the Nigerian government and its ability to manage child’s security. This identifies the availability of laws to promote child’s rights, effectiveness of such laws to protect the general wellbeing of the child, enforceability of such laws and improving institutions that handle child’s right directly or indirectly. This framework goes to harmonise domestic laws within Nigeria that concerns children regardless of religious and geopolitical affiliations of the child. This means that the rights of the child are within the confines of the federal government and cannot be sabotaged by the religion, customs and values practiced by the parents or political unit where the child is lives or enjoys some form of affiliation.
The second framework for understanding responsibility of the child in Nigeria against sexual abuse looks at child security from the lens of the parents and/or guardian who is the legal custodian of the child and provides for the day to day wellbeing and needs of the child. Within this framework, the parents/guardian are expected to serve as a watchdog for the child and provide security against external and internal threat that undermines the sexual and other rights of the child. Issues to be considered under this framework is identifying print, visual, oral, and online content the child is exposed to, identify and assess the behavioural patterns of the persons the child is expose to, ability to frequently engage the child in sexual health education, methods and techniques used to correct the child when he/she leads a poor behaviour etc. This means that the child, though within the political unit of a legitimate government, is served her rights based on the definition of such rights by the parent which determines the form and manner those rights are preserved. The implication within this framework is the lack of homogeneity in the definition of child’s rights based on the various value system parents and guardian use in setting a metrics for what is within the child rights especially when it is in the sexual context. Also, this framework could argue that the child been under the parents could endure sexual abuse from the parents and cannot be salvaged since the government has no responsibility for the rights of the child.
The third framework for understanding who owns responsibility against sexual abuse in Nigeria looks at child security from the collaborative work of the government and the parents. This framework identifies that even while the parents have close access to the child and manages the growth and development of the child, the parent/guardian works within set frameworks of the Nigerian government to ensure that child’s rights are well managed and all threats, especially sexual threats to child’s rights are identified and managed. While this framework creates a harmony between the first two frameworks, the liberal perspective to child’s rights pursued by the framework is sabotaged by the internal conflict that may surface between the two parties responsible for the child. This means that neither the government nor parent have a superior authority over who preserves the rights of the child and could lead to conflict for utmost responsibility to provide the child with security against identified threats like sexual abuse and other form of harassment such children might face within a community and political society that has no key tactics and strategy in enforcing child’s sexual rights.
These frameworks are applicable in the Nigerian case as there is a legal framework that is codified to manage child’s right. However, such legal framework as the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Child Rights Acts, Penal Code, Cyber Crime Act, and Criminal Code have remained dormant in enforcing child’s sexual rights especially in a country divided by religious and cultural lines as seen by how the Child Rights Acts, Penal Code and Criminal Code defines a child’s exposure to sex and sexual activities. Sadly, value systems (that are not codified) seem to manage issues regarding child’s sexual rights at the detriment of the child.
Within the domestic laws in Nigeria, some provide safe net for children against sexual abuse. Section 34(1) of the 1999 Nigerian constitution that states that “every individual is entitled to respect for the dignity of his (her) person”. Such dignity begins when the rights of the child is given an objective evaluation by addressing the child’s age that provide him with a legal cover against abuse from sexual activities and exposure to sexual contents. Emotional and biological development should be considered in respecting the rights of the child to sexual abuse.
Section 1, 6 & 26 of the Violence against Persons (Prohibition) Act 2015 focuses on sexual violence which provided a comprehensive definition of sexual violence and the penalty for violators. Focus here is on penalty of child’s sexual rights offenders. Over the years, there have been an outpouring of sexual crimes against children in schools, homes and their neighbourhood. These crimes are commitment by teachers to male and female pupils/students, parents/guardian to children (mostly fathers to their daughters and uncles to nieces), girls within communities infected with rapist and child sexually offenders. However, a good number of rape and other cases related to sexual abuse are not managed within the confines of the laws. Sadly, this provides courage to will-be rapist to cause a lifetime injury and pain to a child in exchange for a one-sided desire for pleasure. Therefore, it is not wrong to state that the Nigerian judicial system of managing sexual crime against children put vulnerable children at risk of sexual offenders. In this case, the first framework that identifies the government as the chief enforcer of child’s sexual right seems to leave children at the brink of an unchecked political system infected with poor child handling.
In addition, section 275 of the Penal Code states that whoever, by any means whatsoever, induces any girl under the age of eighteen years to go from any place or to do any act with intent that such girl may be or knowing that it is likely that she will be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse with another person shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to 10 years and shall also be liable to a fine. The ambiguity of this law makes it weak to manage child sexual rights within the confines of this law.
The Criminal Code also affirms the prohibition and rape in the southern part of Nigeria. Sections 357-363 outline key issues to manage rape in Nigeria. The definition of rape within this law is narrowed to identify women as the sole victim of the hideous act. While this may be a weakness in the conceptual clarification of rape since men and boys are also victims, the modification of the definition could be based on the number of reported cases based on victim that are predominantly women. These laws are well outlined to provide some manner of safety for women that are the primary target of rape. However, the strength of such codified law has been tested severally and provides no valuable defense for women. If such laws exist within a political system that claims to uphold the rights of women and children and are continuously flawed, what is the limit of responsibility the government cam claim over its highly vulnerable populace?
The Child Rights Act 2003 also prohibits sexual intercourse with a child. Sections 31-33 identifies negligence and child consent as no defense and immaterial to the offender. This means that the law seems to provide a safe net for children and undermine any argument in favour of the offender to indulge a child in sexual activities. However, children have been reportedly raped and sexually violated by security officials, their parents (mostly fathers), teachers, relatives and neighbours. The law also remains weak in prosecuting child sexual offenders and these gap in the Nigerian legal system exposes children to physical, mental or emotional injury, abuse, neglect or maltreatment including sexual abuse.
Violence Against Persons Prohibition Act (2015) covers contemporary and key issues that undermine women’s right. One of such contemporary and key issues is the issues of sexually based violence. The Act identifies rape as a sexual offence against both gender unlike the criminal code that limits its victim to women based on vaginal penetration and provides protection for this most vulnerable group. Men and boys can also be sexually abused through anal and oral sex. Interestingly, not all Nigeria states have adopted the Violence Against Persons Prohibition Act. This act provides punishment for sexual offenders and identifies, in section 38, how to integrate victims into the society. Yet. it is been neglected by some Nigerian states, especially those in the Northern region.
Having said that, some victims of sexual abuses and other concerned persons accuse the government of indirectly promoting the vice at the expense of protecting its citizens. This could be based on the availability of laws that are codified and expected to manage issues of sexual violence that is within the purview of the Nigerian government but only become white paper affect such bills become laws. The accessibility of justice for victims of sexual abuse is costly, the inapplicability of such laws within various states and regions of Nigeria is another key shortcoming that undermine the effectiveness of laws protecting children from sexual related abuse, and the tradition of stigmatization and other forms of treats leaves victims to suffer the effect of sexual related crimes and provides an edge for offenders to indulge in the act.
On the other hand, some persons say that the parent/guardians are to be blamed as they have failed in performing their responsibility of protecting their child. This group of people address child handling from a perspective that is birthed in raising the children within customs and value systems that are not codified and may be fluid depending on the value system of the parents that is influenced by religion, ethnic beliefs and other value systems that are determined by ancestral heritage rather than a scientific process of determining and providing security for children that is codified and documented.
However, some of these codified laws that provides security for children are drawn from various values and customs, the distinction between both is that codified laws are an appraisal of belief systems regarded to improve the sustainability of man within the society. This process of appraisal and engages each value and belief system in relations to its ability to improve human rights and in this context, the sexual rights of children.
The question remains who is to blame between the government and parents/guardian for exposing children to sexual related violence. What key issues are left out between both parties (i.e. government and parents/guardian) and how does this undermine the security of children against sexual related abuse?
Adeleke, N.A et al “Sexual Assault Against Women at Oshogho, South West Nigeria” Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice (2012), Vol. 15, No.2, pp, pp 190-193.
Theresa Akpoghome, “Analysis of the Domestic Legal Framework on Sexual Violence in Nigeria” Journal of Law and Criminal Justice (2016), Vol 4, No.2
Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 as amended (2011) CAP C23 LFN 2004
Section 11(a) of the Child Right Act
Section 218 Criminal Code Act
Section 23 Cyber Crimes Act, 2015
Section 275, Penal Code
Violence Against Persons (Prohibition) Act, 2015 (VAPPA)